For Authors

Connecting your research to people living with diabetes.

I. Article Types

1. Original Articles

Original research articles present a medical or scientific advance. These manuscripts should present well-rounded studies reporting innovative advances that further knowledge about a topic of importance to the diabetes community. The conclusions of the Original Research Article should clearly be supported by the results.

Original Articles should be arranged in the following order:

  1. Title page
  2. Structured abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Research Design and Methods
  5. Results
  6. Conclusions
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. References
  9. Tables and figure legends

A Structured Abstract is required for all original research articles. Abstracts for an original research article should not exceed 250 words. The abstract must be self-contained and clear without reference to the text and should be written for a general journal readership. The abstract format should include four sections: 1) Objective (the purpose or hypothesis of study), 2) Research Design and Methods (the basic design, setting, number of participants and selection criteria, treatment or intervention, and methods of assessment), 3) Results (significant data found), and 4) Conclusions (the validity, limitations, and clinical applicability of the study and its results).

A Conflicts of Interest statement for all authors must be included in the Acknowledgments section of the main document, which should follow the main text and precede the references. If there are no relevant conflicts of interest to disclose, authors should indicate as such in the Acknowledgments section.

In the case of multicenter studies, authors should provide a list of participating investigators in an appendix to the paper.

2. Research Reports

Manuscripts that report interesting and important findings related to diabetes but whose results are suggestive rather than definitive are published as research reports. Research reports explore a question of general interest but use a more limited research methodology than that required for an original research article. Surveys where the bias of the sample cannot be determined; interventions in which there is no control group or pre/post evaluation; feasibility studies in which only a small sample was employed; and benchmarking studies designed to document current practice are typically published as research reports.

Research reports follow a format similar to that of an original research article. The format should include the following sections: Introduction, Research Design and Methods, Results, Conclusions, Acknowledgments, and References.

A summary abstract of no more than 250 words should be included.

3. Case Studies

Manuscripts reporting a novel or innovative resolution of a problem or issue important to diabetes may be published as case studies. Case studies provide information on the way in which a problem was approached; the various options considered and discarded; and the solution implemented, including evidence of the project's success or failure. A discussion of the sustainability of the solution and its extensibility to other institutions should also be included. Citations to literature addressing this or a similar problem should be presented, and enough information on the institutional setting provided to allow readers to judge whether the adopted solution would translate to their own environments. Case studies must include data or other evaluative information that allows readers to judge the success or failure of the project. Manuscripts including only the author's opinion as evidence of success will be returned to the author.

Case studies should follow a format similar to that of an original research article. Manuscripts typically begin with an Introduction, providing a clear statement of the purpose of the project. The Methods section should describe the setting in which the project took place and provide details of the project itself. This should be followed by an Outcomes section presenting the results of the project including evidence of its success or failure. Finally, the Conclusions section addresses the extensibility and sustainability of the solution along with any lessons learned, followed by an Acknowledgments and References section.

A summary abstract of no more than 250 words should be included.

4. Review Articles

Reviews may summarize a clinical research article, policy, or major advancement related to diabetes. The goal of a review article is to translate a body of information that may contain technical or clinical jargon into a more digestible format that requires no specialized knowledge to understand.

Review articles contain the following sections: Abstract, Introduction, Topic (with headings and subheadings), and Conclusions and Outlook.

5. Audience Perspective Editorials

These editorials relate personal and professional experiences on a topic important to diabetes. The goal of this type of editorial is to provide a personal view on a topic, issue, or new technology impacting individuals living with diabetes, their family members, or others touched by diabetes.

II. Journal Policies

Open Access Policy

The PLAID Journal is an open access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full text of articles in this journal without asking prior permission from the publisher or author.

Copyright Assignment

Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.

Plagiarism Detection

All submissions to the journal will be scanned for possible duplicate or prior publication using the CrossCheck/iThenticate plagiarism detection system (

Conflicts of Interest

All submitted papers must include a Conflicts of Interest statement for all authors in the Acknowledgments section. If authors have no relevant conflicts of interest to disclose, this should be indicated in the Acknowledgments section. Relevant conflicts of interest (or lack thereof) should also be disclosed in the authors' comments to the editor during the submission process.

Human and Animal Rights

When reporting experiments on human subjects, authors should indicate whether the procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000 (5). If doubt exists whether the research was conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration, the authors must explain the rationale for their approach, and demonstrate that the institutional review body explicitly approved the doubtful aspects of the study. When reporting experiments on animals, authors should be asked to indicate whether the institutional and national guide for the care and use of laboratory animals was followed.

Informed Consent

Patients have a right to privacy that should not be infringed without informed consent. Identifying information, including patients' names, initials, or hospital numbers, should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, and pedigrees unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the patient (or parent or guardian) gives written informed consent for publication. Informed consent for this purpose requires that a patient who is identifiable be shown the manuscript to be published. Authors should identify Individuals who provide writing assistance and disclose the funding source for this assistance.

Identifying details should be omitted if they are not essential. Complete anonymity is difficult to achieve, however, and informed consent should be obtained if there is any doubt. For example, masking the eye region in photographs of patients is inadequate protection of anonymity. If identifying characteristics are altered to protect anonymity, such as in genetic pedigrees, authors should provide assurance that alterations do not distort scientific meaning and editors should so note.

If informed consent was required, describe how it was obtained in the Methods section and include a copy of the informed consent form used.

III. Format & Style

Use of the Word "Diabetics"

Unless it is clinically or scientifically relevant, The PLAID Journal makes every attempt to use "people with diabetes" or "person with diabetes" in lieu of "diabetic(s)." We encourage a more patient-focused and people-centered approach to diabetes research and information sharing. We aim to feature research that appeals to ALL people with diabetes, not limited to a single type or individual.

Main Document

The Main Document should be in Word document format (not as a PDF). This will allow our Editorial Office to verify the word count and our production staff to turn your paper (if accepted) into an article.

Title Page

This is the first page of the Microsoft Word document and should list the following:

  • The title of the manuscript
  • A running title (60 characters maximum, no abbreviations)
  • The data of submission
  • The authors' full names with middle initials
  • The affiliation and current address of each author - not personal contact information
  • The name, mailing address, phone number, fax number and e-mail address of the corresponding author - not personal contact information
  • Keywords (these are words that readers can use to search for your article on PubMed)
  • A list of abbreviations used
  • A total word count (including all sub-headings but excluding figure legends and references)
  • The number of tables, figures, and references
  • Acknowledgments (if necessary)
  • Author contributions: a brief summary of individual contributions and the funding source of each co-author


This should be the second page of the document. It should be clearly labeled as the Abstract. The paragraph should not exceed 250 words and it should summarize the content of the manuscript. If applicable, it should contain the findings of the original research or case report submitted. All abstracts must be formatted as a structured abstract. See more details here.


The manuscript should begin on the third page of the document. The manuscript should not include the figures. Tables should be included at the end of the document, after the references and figure legends. Each figure and table should be referred to within the body of the manuscript and numbered consecutively as it appears within the text.

The manuscript should contain references at the end of the main body of the text. Please start the references on a new page and clearly label this section as References in bold and aligned to the left-hand side of the page. The figure legends and tables should follow the references on separate pages.


Any footnotes included in the manuscript should be separate from the references. They should be included under a separate title (Footnotes) after the main text of the manuscript.


The acknowledgments are located after the main text and before the reference list. Acknowledgments should contain the author contributions paragraph, brief statements of assistance, the guarantor's name (person[s] taking responsibility for the contents of the article), funding/financial support, and reference to prior publication of the study in abstract form, where applicable.


References must be started on a new page and clearly marked as References.

Our journal uses the style format of the National Libraries of Medicine. Please cite references by sequential numbers as they appear in the text, using Arabic numbers in square brackets (e.g., [x]) on the line. References first cited in a table or figure legend should be numbered so they are in sequence with citations where the table or figure is first mentioned.

Example of in-text citation format:

It is estimated that approximately 3 million people have type 1 diabetes in the United States with adults comprising 85% of this population [1].

Please note that programs such as Endnote are currently using round brackets (e.g., (x)) and not square brackets (e.g., [x]) for references in the main body of the text. Please ensure that this is corrected before submitting the manuscript.

To change the NLM template so it includes the square brackets rather than the round brackets, make sure that Endnote is set to the NLM style of bibliography. Go to Edit > Output Styles > Edit "NLM." A new window called NLM.ens will pop up. Click on the arrow by Citations so it faces downward; a small menu will appear underneath. In this menu, select Templates and to the right you will see a box called In-Text Citation Template. Currently this will display:

(Bibliography Number)

Change the round brackets () to square brackets [], such that you now see:

[Bibliography Number]

Close the window. Endnote will ask you if you wish to save the changes you made in the document NLM.ens. Select Save. A new window will pop up called Save As. We suggest that you save the style name as "PLAID."

Supplemental Data

Non-essential tables, figures, and/or videos may accompany articles as online-only supplemental files, but authors are asked to include a comment to the editor at the time of manuscript submission that explains the rationale and justification for submitting and possibly posting the supplemental materials.

All online-only supplementary files should be combined in one document file whenever possible and uploaded during the submission process. The file must be clearly labeled as "Online-Only Supplemental Material" (tables, figures, etc.) or "Online Supplemental Video." In addition, supplemental online-only files must be referenced in the main text of the manuscript at least once (e.g., "Supplemental Table S1").

Figures and Tables

Each figure must be submitted as an individual file, in either high resolution TIFF or JPEG format. Images in other file formats or embedded in documents such as Word or PowerPoint cannot be accepted. A resolution of at least 300 dpi will help ensure clear reproduction.

The authors must obtain the copyright privileges to publish each figure they submit. The authors must show proof that they have these privileges.

Figure Legends

All figure legends should be at the end of your document after the references. Figures must be interpretable from their legends without reference to the text. Do not include any details of methods in figure legends.

Begin legends with figure number, then title, both in bold. If several panels are present in the figure, label them as a, b, c, etc.

Provide a short description of each panel sequentially (a., b., etc.) and describe what symbols represent. When possible, include symbols in the legend (e.g., [o] rather than "closed red circle"). If error bars are included, specify what error they represent (standard deviation, SEM, etc.). If statistical significance is represented, define all asterisked symbols at the end of the figure legend.


Each table should appear on a separate page at the end of your manuscript, after the references and figure legends. Include the title and table number above each table in bold. Each row and column requires a heading or title, with content (including units of measure) clearly indicated.

Number tables consecutively as they appear in the text, with Arabic numerals. Cite each table at the most appropriate point in the text. Definitions of all abbreviations used in the table should be placed in a footnote, indicated by lowercase superscript letters: a, b, c, etc. Use footnotes to provide additional detail if necessary. Footnotes for tables should be found directly under the table and not in the Footer of the document.


All images must be submitted individually as high-resolution (300 dpi) TIFF or JPEG files.